Catalogue numbers: F 493, JH 1643.
Van Gogh painted two portraits of the Roulin's seventeen-year-old son, Armand. Both were completed in November 1888 but neither on the size of canvas originally planned. One shows a young man in profile, dressed in a dark blue suit and matching hat; the other, probably the first version, presents Armand Roulin full face, in a citrine jacket and contrasting hat and waistcoat of blue. Both paintings are very simple in their composition, presenting the young man without any additional details, decoration or scenery such as are provided in the portraits of the Roulin parents or in others where colour, setting or costume attempt to introduce layered meanings. What is remarkable in both these pictures is the seriousness of expression, which is almost sombre and sad. This effect of the features contrasts with Armand's almost dandyish dress, the rakish angle of his hat, and the carefully painted knotting of his cravat.
Dürer created his single panel altarpiece showing the Adoration of the Trinity, a celestial vision which forms an iconographical whole with the picture frame, for the wealthy merchant Matthäus Landauer. The Trinity is depicted with Christ on the Cross being supported by angels, the focal point of the heavenly gathering of saints. The crowd of martyrs on the left is led by Mary, and the group of Old Testament prophets and kings on the right by St John the Baptist. Clergymen and laypersons following the heads of the State and Church form the lowest horizontal zone in heaven. The artist depicts himself in the earthly zone in the manner of a secondary portrait. The client is the only layperson portrayed in the group of clergymen on the left, and he is being received into the heavenly community by a cardinal. Dürer prepared this detail in a portrait study.
Matthäus Landauer had gained his wealth by trading in ore, and in 1501 had founded a home for twelve old craftsmen who had fallen on hard times, to which Chapel of All Saints was attached. In addition to the portrait of the donor, there is a second one in the picture, that of his son-in-law Wilhelm Haller.
The painting earlier was attributed to Perugino, Ridolfo Ghirlandaio, Granacci. At the time (in 1928) of the identification of the artist as Raphael, the painting had been heavily painted over to represent a St Catherine. After careful cleaning, the perfect geometry and detachment of this courtly figure were revealed, although her identity is not known. Present day critics attribute the work to Raphael, referring it to 1505 and to the Florentine environment. It can, in fact, be inserted among the portraits of that period, for it represents an apex in the artist's stylistic development. The fullness of the well constructed figure is set apart from a vast landscape background, inspired by Leonardo but executed with the clarity typical of Raphael. Piero della Francesca and Perugino influences have also been noted in the style of the painting.
Renoir had numerous patrons from the newly prosperous professional class of later-nineteenth-century Paris. This led to his keen sense for the harmony of ideal bourgeois domestic happiness in the Children's Afternoon at Wargemont
This painting can be compared directly with Caravaggio's painting of the same subject.
Suggested listening (streaming mp3, 11 minutes):Johann Kuhnau: The Fight between David and Goliath (No. 1 of the 6 Stories from the Bible illustrated in music)